San Diego Natural History Museum--Your Nature Connection[BRCC San Diego Natural History Museum: Herpetology Department]

Checklist of Birds
Recorded in San Diego County, California

Birds and Mammals | Species Accounts | BRCC

Philip Unitt, Collection Manager, Department of Birds and Mammals, San Diego Natural History Museum

This list covers all species and subspecies of birds reported reliably in San Diego County. The distribution and status of each species is unique. The following codes can only place this status in broad categories. If the species occurs in multiple roles, two may be indicated, but this simple system cannot capture the rich complexity of many patterns of bird distribution.

B -- breeds in county regularly
E -- designated as endangered or threatened by federal or state government--or should be
I -- not native to San Diego County, introduced by man
M -- occurs in county mainly in migration
O -- breeds in county occasionally or exceptionally
P -- pelagic, occurring mainly offshore and rarely visible from land
R -- more or less resident, occurring in county year round
S -- occurs mainly as a summer visitor
V -- vagrant, not occurring in county annually, except in a few instances where individual birds have remained
W -- occurs mainly as a winter visitor (small numbers of certain nonbreeding water birds occurring mainly as winter visitors remain year round)
X -- extirpated from county as a breeding species (may still occur as a nonbreeding visitor or migrant).

** Double asterisks specify that the bird's occurrence in San Diego County is supported by specimens in the San Diego Natural History Museum.
* Single asterisks specify that specimens in other museums have been reported in the literature.

The English names are those adopted in the sixth edition of the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) Check-list of North American Birds and its biennial supplements published in the Auk; alternative names by which the species is often or more commonly known are included. The scientific names and species-level classification are those of the AOU Check-list and supplements. Some commonly used alternative classifications at the level of genus are also indicated; in these cases, the genus under the less inclusive concept is placed in parentheses. The subspecies-level classification reflects my best understanding as reflected by the collection in the San Diego Natural History Museum; for those subspecies that I have not had the opportunity to study first-hand, the classification reflects the fifth edition of the AOU checklist (1957) or more recent published studies. The order of species is that of Devillers et al., Noms Français des Oiseaux du Monde (1993, which likely reflects closely the order the AOU will adopt in the upcoming seventh edition of its list.

Grebes: Order Podicipediformes
Family Podicipedidae
BR Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps podiceps**
WV Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena holboellii
W Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus cornutus**
WO Eared Grebe Podiceps nigricollis californicus**
BR, W Western Grebe Aechmophorus occidentalis occidentalis**
BR Clark's Grebe Aechmophorus clarkii transitionalis**

Loons: Order Gaviiformes
Family Gaviidae
W Red-throated Loon Gavia stellata**
W Pacific Loon Gavia pacifica**
W Common Loon Gavia immer**

Tubenoses: Order Procellariiformes
Family Diomedeidae (Albatrosses)
EPV Short-tailed Albatross Phoebastria albatrus**
PS Black-footed Albatross Phoebastria nigripes**
PV Laysan Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis**

Family Procellariidae (Shearwaters and Petrels)
PW Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii**
PV Buller's or New Zealand Shearwater Puffinus bulleri**
PV Flesh- or Pale-footed Shearwater Puffinus carneipes*
PS Pink-footed Shearwater Puffinus creatopus**
PS Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus**
PW Short-tailed or Slender-billed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris**
PW Black-vented Shearwater Puffinus opisthomelas**

Family Oceanitidae or Hydrobatidae (Storm-Petrels)
PV Wilson's Storm-Petrel Oceanites oceanicus oceanicus*
PS Least Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma microsoma**
PS Leach's Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa socorroensis**
PS Black Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma melania**
PV Ashy Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma homochroa**
PV Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma furcata plumbea**

Totipalmates: Order Pelecaniformes
Family Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
SV Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens**

Family Phaethontidae (Tropicbirds)
PV Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus mesonauta**

Family Sulidae (Boobies)
SV Blue-footed Booby Sula nebouxii nebouxii**
PV Masked Booby Sula dactylatra californica
SV Red-footed Booby Sula sula websteri
V Brown Booby Sula leucogaster brewsteri**

Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants)
BR Brandt's Cormorant Phalacrocorax penicillatus**
BR Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus**
W Pelagic Cormorant Phalacrocorax pelagicus resplendens**

Family Anhingidae (Anhingas)
V Anhinga Anhinga anhinga leucogaster

Family Pelecanidae (Pelicans)
W American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos**
ER Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis californicus**

Herons: Order Ardeiformes
Family Ardeidae
W Reddish Egret Egretta rufescens dickeyi**
W Tricolored or Louisiana Heron Egretta tricolor ruficollis**
BR Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea**
BR Snowy Egret Egretta thula thula**
BR Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias wardi**
BR Great Egret Ardea alba egretta**
BR Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis ibis**
BR Green Heron Butorides virescens anthonyi**
V Yellow-crowned Night Heron Nyctanassa violacea bancrofti**
BR Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli**
BR Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis hesperis**
WO American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus**

Storks and Relatives: Order Ciconiiformes
Family Plataleidae or Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
V White Ibis Eudocimus albus**
BR White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi**
SV Roseate Spoonbill Ajaia ajaja

Family Ciconiidae (Storks)
V Wood Stork Mycteria americana**

Family Vulturidae or Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BR Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura meridionalis**
EX California Condor Gymnogyps californianus**

Waterfowl: Order Anseriformes
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Swans)
X Fulvous Whistling Duck Dendrocygna bicolor**
BR Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis rubida**
WV Whistling or Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbianus**
M White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons frontalis**
W Snow Goose Anser (Chen) caerulescens caerulescens**
W Ross' Goose Anser (Chen) rossii**
  Canada Goose Branta canadensis
W Moffitt's Canada Goose B. c. moffitti**
W Lesser Canada Goose B. c. parvipes*
WV Cackling Goose B. c. minima**
  Brant Branta bernicla
W Black Brant B. c. nigricans**
WV Light-bellied Brant B. c. hrota
W, BRI Wood Duck Aix sponsa**
W Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope
W American Wigeon Anas americana**
BR Gadwall Anas strepera strepera**
  Green-winged Teal Anas crecca
WO Green-winged Teal A. c. carolinensis**
WV Eurasian Teal A. c. crecca
BR Mallard Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos**
WO Northern Pintail Anas acuta**
M Blue-winged Teal Anas discors*
BR Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium**
WO Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata**
W Canvasback Aythya valisineria**
BR Redhead Aythya americana**
W Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris**
WV Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula
W Greater Scaup Aythya marila nearctica
W Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis**
WV King Eider Somateria spectabilis
WV Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus
V Oldsquaw Clangula hyemalis**
WV Black Scoter Melanitta nigra americana
W Surf Scoter Melanitta perspicillata**
WV White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca deglandi**
W Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula americana**
WV Barrow's Goldeneye Bucephala islandica
W Bufflehead Bucephala albeola**
W Hooded Merganser Mergus (Lophodytes) cucullatus**
W Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator**
W Common Merganser Mergus merganser americanus**

Raptors: Order Falconiformes
Family Pandionidae (Osprey)
RO Osprey Pandion haliaetus carolinensis**

Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Kites, and Eagles)
BR White-tailed Kite Elanus leucurus majusculus**
V Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis
  Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus
W Northern Bald Eagle H. l. alascanus*
EXO Southern Bald Eagle H. l. leucocephalus
BR Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus hudsonius**
W Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus velox**
BR Cooper's Hawk Accipiter cooperii**
WVO Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis atricapillus**
VO Harris' Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi
BR Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus elegans**
V Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus platypterus**
MX Swainson's Hawk Buteo swainsoni**
WO Zone-tailed Hawk Buteo albonotatus**
  Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis
BR, W Western Red-tailed Hawk B. j. calurus**
WV Fuertes' Red-tailed Hawk B. j. fuertesi**
W Ferruginous Hawk Buteo regalis**
W Rough-legged Hawk Buteo lagopus sanctijohannis
BR Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos canadensis**

Family Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
V Crested Caracara Caracara plancus auduboni
  American Kestrel Falco sparverius
BR American Kestrel F. s. sparverius**
WV San Lucas Kestrel F. s. peninsularis**
  Merlin Falco columbarius
W American Merlin F. c. columbarius**
WV Richardson's Merlin F. c. richardsonii**
WV Black Merlin F. c. suckleyi
BR, W Prairie Falcon Falco mexicanus**
  Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
BR, W American Peregrine F. c. anatum**
WV Peale's Peregrine F. c. pealei*

Chickenlike Birds: Order Galliformes
Family Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
BR Mountain Quail Oreortyx pictus eremophilus**
BR California Quail Callipepla californica californica**
BR Gambel's Quail Callipepla gambelii gambelii**

Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, and Turkeys)
I Wild Turkey Meleagris gallopavo**
I Ring-necked Pheasant Phasianus colchicus

Cranes, Rails, and Relatives: Order Gruiformes
Family Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
V Yellow Rail Coturnicops noveboracensis noveboracensis**
EX Black Rail Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus**
EBR Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris levipes**
BR Virginia Rail Rallus limicola limicola**
WO Sora Porzana carolina**
V Purple Gallinule Porphyrio (Porphryrula) martinicus**
BR Common Gallinule or Moorhen Gallinula chloropus cachinnans**
BR American Coot Fulica americana americana**

Family Gruidae (Cranes)
V Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis ssp.

Shorebirds, Gulls, and Auks: Order Charadriiformes
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Snipes)
W Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago delicata**
V Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica baueri
W Marbled Godwit Limosa fedoa fedoa**
W Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus**
  Long-billed Curlew Numenius americanus
W Southern Long-billed Curlew N. a. americanus**
W Northern Long-billed Curlew N. a. parvus**
V Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda
V Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus
W Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca**
M Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes**
M Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria cinnamomea**
WB Spotted Sandpiper Tringa (Actitis) macularia**
W Wandering Tattler Tringa (Heteroscelus) incana**
W Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus**
W Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres ssp.**
W Black Turnstone Arenaria melanocephala**
W Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus caurinus**
W Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus**
W Surfbird Aphriza virgata**
W Red Knot Calidris canutus roselaari**
W Sanderling Calidris alba**
M Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla
W Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri**
W Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla**
M Baird's Sandpiper Calidris bairdii*
M Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos**
V Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata**
W Dunlin Calidris alpina pacifica**
V Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea
V Stilt Sandpiper Calidris (Micropalama) himantopus
V Buff-breasted Sandpiper Tryngites subruficollis
V Ruff Philomachus pugnax**
M Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor**
M Northern or Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus**
W Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicaria**

Family Charadriidae (Plovers)
V Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva
V American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica**
W Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola**
W Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus**
V Wilson's Plover Charadrius wilsonia beldingi*
BR Killdeer Charadrius vociferus vociferus**
EBR Snowy Plover Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus**
WV Mountain Plover Charadrius montanus**

Family Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers)
V Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani**
V American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus frazari*

Family Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BR Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus mexicanus**
BR American Avocet Recurvirostra americana**

Family Stercorariidae (Jaegers and Skuas)
PSV South Polar Skua Catharacta maccormicki*
PM Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus**
PM Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus**
PV Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus pallescens**

Family Laridae (Gulls and Terns)
R Heermann's Gull Larus heermanni**
W Mew Gull Larus canus brachyrhynchus**
W Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis**
  California Gull Larus californicus
W California Gull L. c. californicus**
W Alberta Gull L. c. albertaensis**
W Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens**
  Western Gull Larus occidentalis
BR Southern Western Gull L. o. wymani**
WV Northern Western Gull L. o. occidentalis**
V Yellow-footed Gull Larus livens**
WV Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus barrovianus**
W Thayer's Gull Larus thayeri**
W Herring Gull Larus argentatus smithsonianus**
WV Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus graellsii
W Bonaparte's Gull Larus philadelphia**
V Laughing Gull Larus atricilla
V Franklin's Gull Larus pipixcan**
V Little Gull Larus minutus**
PM Sabine's Gull Larus (Xema) sabini**
W Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla pollicaris**
SB Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica vanrossemi**
BR Caspian Tern Sterna caspia**
RO Royal Tern Sterna maxima maxima**
BR Elegant Tern Sterna elegans**
V Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis acuflavida
M Common Tern Sterna hirundo hirundo**
PM Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea**
BR Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri**
SB Least Tern Sterna antillarum browni**
VO Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata oahuensis/crissalis**
M Black Tern Chlidonias niger surinamensis**

Family Rynchopidae (Skimmers)
BR Black Skimmer Rynchops niger niger**

Family Alcidae (Auks, Murres, and Puffins)
PWV Common Murre Uria aalge californica**
V Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba columba
WV Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus marmoratus marmoratus
V Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris**
  Xantus' Murrelet Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
PR Northern Xantus' Murrelet S. h. scrippsi**
PV Guadalupe Xantus' Murrelet S. h. hypoleucus**
PSV Craveri's Murrelet Synthliboramphus craveri**
PW Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus**
PR Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus aleuticus**
V Parakeet Auklet Aethia psittacula*
PW Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata**
PV Horned Puffin Fratercula corniculata**
PV Tufted Puffin Fratercula cirrhata**

Doves and Sandgrouse: Order Columbiformes
Family Columbidae (Doves and Pigeons)
BRI Domestic Pigeon Columba livia**
BR Band-tailed Pigeon Columba fasciata monilis**
BRI Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis**
BR Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura marginella**
BR White-winged Dove Zenaida asiatica mearnsi**
V Inca Dove Columbina (Scardafella) inca
BR Common Ground Dove Columbina passerina pallescens**
V Ruddy Ground Dove Columbina talpacoti eluta

Cuckoos: Order Cuculiformes
Family Cuculidae
EVX Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus occidentalis**
BR Greater Roadrunner Geococcyx californianus**

Owls: Order Strigiformes
Family Tytonidae (Barn Owls)
BR Barn Owl Tyto alba pratincola**

Family Strigidae (Typical Owls)
SV Flammulated Owl Otus flammeolus idahoensis**
BR Western Screech Owl Otus kennicottii bendirei**
  Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus
BR Pacific Horned Owl B. v. pacificus**
BR Pallid Horned Owl B. v. pallescens**
BR Spotted Owl Strix occidentalis occidentalis**
V? Northern Pygmy Owl Glaucidium gnoma californicum
BR Burrowing Owl Athene (Speotyto) cunicularia hypugaea**
BR Northern Saw-whet Owl Aegolius acadicus acadicus**
BR Long-eared Owl Asio otus wilsonianus**
W Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus flammeus**

Nightjars and Relatives: Order Caprimulgiformes
Family Caprimulgidae (Nightjars)
SR Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis texensis**
V Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor hesperis
  Common Poor-will Phalaenoptilus nuttallii
BR Dusky Poor-will P. n. californicus**
M Nuttall's Poor-will P. n. nuttallii**
  Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus vociferus
V Eastern Whip-poor-will C. v. vociferus
V Stephens' Whip-poor-will C. v. arizonae

Swifts and Hummingbirds: Order Apodiformes
Family Apodidae (Swifts)
M Black Swift Cypseloides niger borealis*
SV Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica**
M Vaux's Swift Chaetura vauxi vauxi**
BR White-throated Swift Aeronautes saxatalis saxatalis**

Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WV Broad-billed Hummingbird Cynanthus latirostris magicus
WV Xantus' Hummingbird Hylocharis xantusii
WV Violet-crowned Hummingbird Amazilia violiceps ellioti
SB Black-chinned Hummingbird Archilochus alexandri**
BR Anna's Hummingbird Calypte anna**
BR Costa's Hummingbird Calypte costae**
M Calliope Hummingbird Stellula calliope**
V Broad-tailed Hummingbird Selasphorus platycercus platycercus
M Rufous Hummingbird Selasphorus rufus**
  Allen's Hummingbird Selasphorus sasin
M Migratory Allen's Hummingbird S. s. sasin**
V Nonmigratory Allen's Hummingbird S. s. sedentarius**

Kingfishers and Relatives: Order Coraciiformes
Family Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
BR Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon**

Woodpeckers and Relatives: Order Piciformes
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers, Piculets, and Wrynecks)
W Lewis' Woodpecker Melanerpes lewis**
BR Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi**
WV Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius
W Red-naped Sapsucker Sphyrapicus nuchalis**
  Red-breasted Sapsucker Sphyrapicus ruber
BR Sierra Red-breasted Sapsucker S. r. daggetti**
WV Northwestern Red-breasted Sapsucker S. r. ruber**
W Williamson's Sapsucker Sphyrapicus thyroideus thyroideus
BR Nuttall's Woodpecker Picoides (Dendrocopos) nuttallii**
BR Ladder-backed Woodpecker Picoides (Dendrocopos) scalaris cactophilus**
BR Downy Woodpecker Picoides (Dendrocopos) pubescens turati*
BR Hairy Woodpecker Picoides (Dendrocopos) villosus hyloscopus**
BR White-headed Woodpecker Picoides (Dendrocopos) albolarvatus gravirostris**
  Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus
BR Monterey Red-shafted Flicker C. a. collaris**
W Interior Red-shafted Flicker C. a. canescens**
WV Northern Yellow-shafted Flicker C. a. luteus**

Songbirds: Order Passeriformes
Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
SB Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi**
WV Greater Pewee Contopus pertinax pallidiventris
  Western Wood Pewee Contopus sordidulus
SB Western Wood Pewee C. s. sordidulus**
M Alaska Wood Pewee C. s. saturatus**
  Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii
M Northwestern Willow Flycatcher E. t. brewsteri**
ESB Southwestern Willow Flycatcher E. t. extimus**
V Least Flycatcher Empidonax minimus**
M Hammond's Flycatcher Empidonax hammondii**
M Gray Flycatcher Empidonax wrightii**
SB Dusky Flycatcher Empidonax oberholseri**
SB Western or Pacific-slope Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis difficilis**
WV Eastern Phoebe Sayornis phoebe
BR Say's Phoebe Sayornis saya saya**
BR Black Phoebe Sayornis nigricans semiatra**
WO Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus flammeus**
V Olivaceous or Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer olivascens
SB Ash-throated Flycatcher Myiarchus cinerascens cinerascens**
V Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus
VO Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus magister
M Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus satrapa**
BR Cassin's Kingbird Tyrannus vociferans vociferans**
WV Thick-billed Kingbird Tyrannus crassirostris
SB Western Kingbird Tyrannus verticalis**
V Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus forficatus**
V Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus**
V Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Myiodynastes luteiventris

Family Laniidae (Shrikes)
  Loggerhead Shrike Lanius ludovicianus
BR Grinnell's Shrike L. l. grinnelli**
BR California Shrike L. l. gambeli**

Family Vireonidae (Vireos)
  Bell's Vireo Vireo bellii
ESB Least Bell's Vireo V. b. pusillus**
WV Arizona Bell's Vireo V. b. arizonae**
  Hutton's Vireo Vireo huttoni
BR Oberholser's Vireo V. h. oberholseri**
V Parkes' Vireo V. h. parkesi**
V White-eyed Vireo Vireo griseus griseus
SB Gray Vireo Vireo vicinior**
SB Cassin's Vireo Vireo cassinii cassinii**
M Plumbeous Vireo Vireo plumbeus plumbeus
V Blue-headed Vireo Vireo solitarius solitarius
V Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons
V Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus**
V Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus**
V Yellow-green Vireo Vireo flavoviridis hypoleucus**
MO Warbling Vireo Vireo gilvus swainsoni**

Family Corvidae (Jays and Crows)
V Pinyon Jay Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus**
BR Steller's Jay Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis**
BR Western Scrub Jay Aphelocoma californica obscura**
V Clark's Nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana**
BR American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos hesperis**
BR Common Raven Corvus corax clarionensis**

Family Bombycillidae (Waxwings and Silky Flycatchers)
BR Phainopepla Phainopepla nitens lepida**
WV Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus pallidiceps
W Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum**

Family Cinclidae (Dippers)
V North American Dipper Cinclus mexicanus unicolor*

Family Turdidae (Thrushes)
  Varied Thrush Zoothera (Ixoreus) naevia
W Northern Varied Thrush Z. (I.) n. meruloides**
W Coast Varied Thrush Z. (I.) n. naevia**
BR Western Bluebird Sialia mexicana occidentalis**
W Mountain Bluebird Sialia currucoides**
W Townsend's Solitaire Myadestes townsendi townsendi**
V Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus aliciae
  Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus
M Northern Russet-backed Thrush C. u. ustulatus**
SB Southern Russet-backed Thrush C. u. oedicus**
  Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus
W Alaska Hermit Thrush C. g. guttatus**
W Dwarf Hermit Thrush C. g. nanus**
W Coast Hermit Thrush C. g. vaccinius**
M Monterey Hermit Thrush C. g. slevini**
SV Sierra Hermit Thrush C. g. sequoiensis
V Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina**
WV Rufous-backed Robin Turdus rufopalliatus grisior
BR American Robin Turdus migratorius propinquus**

Family Sturnidae (Starlings)
BRI European Starling Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris**

Family Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
V Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis**
BR Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos polyglottos**
M Sage Thrasher Oreoscoptes montanus**
V Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum longicauda
VO Bendire's Thrasher Toxostoma bendirei**
BR LeConte's Thrasher Toxostoma lecontei lecontei**
BR California Thrasher Toxostoma redivivum redivivum**
BR Crissal Thrasher Toxostoma crissale coloradense

Family Sittidae (Nuthatches)
  Pygmy Nuthatch Sitta pygmaea
BR White-naped Pygmy Nuthatch S. p. leuconucha**
V Black-eared Pygmy Nuthatch S. p. melanotis**
WO Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta canadensis**
BR White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis aculeata**

Family Certhiidae (Creepers)
BR Brown Creeper Certhia americana zelotes**

Family Troglodytidae (Wrens)
  Cactus Wren Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus
EBR San Diego Cactus Wren C. b. sandiegensis**
BR Desert Cactus Wren C. b. anthonyi**
BR Rock Wren Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus**
BR Canyon Wren Catherpes mexicanus conspersus**
  Marsh Wren Cistothorus palustris
BR Mary Clark's Marsh Wren C. p. clarkae**
W Western Marsh Wren C. p. plesius**
W Palouse Marsh Wren C. p. pulverius**
  Bewick's Wren Thryomanes bewickii
BR Sooty Bewick's Wren T. b. charienturus**
WV San Joaquin Bewick's Wren T. b. drymoecus**
WV Winter Wren Troglodytes troglodytes ssp.
BR House Wren Troglodytes aedon parkmanii**

Family Polioptilidae (Verdin and Gnatcatchers)
BR Verdin Auriparus flaviceps acaciarum**
BR Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila caerulea obscura**
BR California Gnatcatcher Polioptila californica californica**
BR Black-tailed Gnatcatcher Polioptila melanura lucida**

Family Paridae (Titmice and Chickadees)
BR, W Mountain Chickadee Poecile gambeli baileyae**
BR Plain or Oak Titmouse Baeolophus inornatus affabilis**

Family Aegithalidae (Long-tailed Tits)
BR Bushtit Psaltriparus minimus melanurus**

Family Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BR Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor**
Violet-green Swallow
Tachycineta thalassina thalassina**
SB Purple Martin Progne subis subis**
  N. Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis
SB Pale Rough-winged Swallow S. s. psammochroa**
M Dark Rough-winged Swallow S. s. serripennis**
M Bank Swallow Riparia riparia riparia**
SB Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica erythrogaster**
SB Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota tachina**

Family Regulidae (Kinglets)
  Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula
W Ruby-crowned Kinglet R. c. calendula**
WV Sitka Kinglet R. c. grinnelli**
W Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa apache**

Family Timaliidae (Babblers)
BR Wrentit Chamaea fasciata henshawi**

Family Alaudidae (Larks)
  Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris
BR California Horned Lark E. a. actia**
BR? Island Horned Lark E. a. insularis**
BR Yuma Horned Lark E. a. leucansiptila**

Family Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
BRI House Sparrow Passer domesticus domesticus**

Family Motacillidae (Pipits and Wagtails)
V Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus**
W American Pipit Anthus rubescens pacificus**
V Sprague's Pipit Anthus spragueii**

Family Fringillidae (Finches)
W Pine Siskin Carduelis pinus pinus**
BR American Goldfinch Carduelis tristis salicamans**
BR Lesser Goldfinch Carduelis psaltria hesperophilus**
BR Lawrence's Goldfinch Carduelis lawrencei**
BR, W Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus californicus**
W Cassin's Finch Carpodacus cassinii**
BR House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis**
  Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra
V Medium-large Red Crossbill L. (c.) pusilla**
V Mexican Giant Crossbill L. (c.) stricklandi**
WV Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus montanus

Family Emberizidae, Subfamily Emberizinae (New World Sparrows and Relatives)
V Little Bunting Emberiza pusilla
WV McCown's Longspur Calcarius mccownii**
WV Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus alascensis**
WV Chestnut-collared Longspur Calcarius ornatus**
V Lark Bunting Calamospiza melanocorys**
  Fox Sparrow Passerella iliaca
WV Yukon Fox Sparrow P. i. zaboria*
W Alberta Fox Sparrow P. i. altivagans**
W Shumagin Fox Sparrow P. i. unalaschcensis**
WV Yakutat Fox Sparrow P. i. annectens**
W Slate-colored Fox Sparrow P. i. schistacea**
W Thick-billed Fox Sparrow P. i. megarhynchus**
SB, W Stephens' Fox Sparrow P. i. stephensi**
  Song Sparrow Passerella (Melospiza) melodia
BR San Diego Song Sparrow P. (M.) m. cooperi**
WV Merrill's Song Sparrow P. (M.) m. merrilli**
W Lincoln's Sparrow Passerella (Melospiza) lincolnii**
W Swamp Sparrow Passerella (Melospiza) georgiana ericrypta**
WV Harris' Sparrow Zonotrichia querula
  White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys
W Gambel's White-crowned Sparrow Z. l. gambelii**
MO Mountain White-crowned Sparrow Z. l. oriantha**
W Puget Sound White-crowned Sparrow Z. l. pugetensis**
W White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis**
W Golden-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia atricapilla**
  Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis
BR, W Sierra Oregon Junco J. h. thurberi**
W Shufeldt's Oregon Junco J. h. shufeldti**
W Interior Oregon Junco J. h. montanus**
W Pink-sided Junco J. h. mearnsi**
W Gray-headed Junco J. h. caniceps**
W Slate-colored Junco J. h. hyemalis**
W Cassiar Junco J. h. cismonantus**
  Savannah Sparrow Ammodramus (Passerculus) sandwichensis
W Nevada Savannah Sparrow A. (P.) s. nevadensis**
W Western Savannah Sparrow A. (P.) s. anthinus**
W Dwarf Savannah Sparrow A. (P.) s. brooksi**
EBR Belding's Sparrow A. (P.) s. beldingi**
W Large-billed Sparrow A. (P.) s. rostratus**
W Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow Ammodramus caudacutus nelsoni**
V Baird's Sparrow Ammodramus bairdii
BR Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum perpallidus**
WV American Tree Sparrow Spizella arborea ochracea
BR, W Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina arizonae**
M Clay-colored Sparrow Spizella pallida**
  Brewer's Sparrow Spizella breweri
W Brewer's Sparrow S. p. breweri**
V Timberline Sparrow S. p. taverneri*
SB Black-chinned Sparrow Spizella atrogularis cana**
  Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus
W Western Vesper Sparrow P. g. confinis**
WV Oregon Vesper Sparrow P. g. affinis**
BR Lark Sparrow Chondestes grammacus strigatus**
BR Black-throated Sparrow Amphispiza bilineata deserticola**
  Sage Sparrow Amphispiza belli
BR Bell's Sage Sparrow A. b. belli**
W Intermediate Sage Sparrow A. b. canescens**
W Nevada Sage Sparrow A. b. nevadensis**
V Cassin's Sparrow Aimophila cassinii
BR Rufous-crowned Sparrow Aimophila ruficeps canescens**
WO Green-tailed Towhee Pipilo chlorurus**
BR Spotted or Rufous-sided Towhee Pipilo maculatus megalonyx**
BR Brown or California Towhee Pipilo crissalis senicula**

Family Emberizidae, Subfamily Parulinae (New World Warblers)
V Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus
V Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera
M Tennessee Warbler Vermivora peregrina**
  Orange-crowned Warbler Vermivora celata
BR, W Dusky Orange-crowned Warbler V. c. sordida**
BR, W Lutescent Orange-crowned Warbler V. c. lutescens**
W Rocky Mt. Orange-crowned Warbler V. c. orestera**
V Eastern Orange-crowned Warbler V. c. celata
M Nashville Warbler Vermivora ruficapilla ridgwayi**
M Virginia's Warbler Vermivora virginiae**
SB Lucy's Warbler Vermivora luciae**
V Parula Warbler Parula americana
  Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia
SB Western Yellow Warbler D. p. morcomi**
M Alaska Yellow Warbler D. p. rubiginosa**
V Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica**
V Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia**
V Cape May Warbler Dendroica tigrina**
V Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens caerulescens**
  Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata
WO Audubon's Warbler D. c. auduboni**
W Alaska Myrtle Warbler D. c. hooveri**
MO Black-throated Gray Warbler Dendroica nigrescens**
W, M Townsend's Warbler Dendroica townsendi**
M Hermit Warbler Dendroica occidentalis**
V Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens virens**
V Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca**
  Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica
V Sycamore Warbler D. d. albilora
V Yellow-throated Warbler D. d. dominica
V Grace's Warbler Dendroica graciae graciae**
V Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus pinus**
V Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor discolor**
  Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum
M, W Western Palm Warbler D. p. palmarum**
V Yellow Palm Warbler D. p. hypochrysea**
V Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea**
M Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata**
V Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea
M Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia**
M, W American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla**
V Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea**
V Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorus**
V Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus**
W, M Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis**
WV Louisiana Waterthrush Seiurus motacilla
V Kentucky Warbler Oporornis formosus
V Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis**
V Mourning Warbler Oporornis philadelphia**
M Macgillivray's Warbler Oporornis tolmiei tolmiei**
  Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas
BR Western Yellowthroat G. t. occidentalis**
WV San Francisco Yellowthroat G. t. sinuosa**
V Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina
  Wilson's Warbler Wilsonia pusilla
MO Golden Wilson's Warbler W. p. chryseola**
M Pileolated Wilson's Warbler W. p. pileolata**
V Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis
V Red-faced Warbler Cardellina rubrifrons
VO Painted Redstart Myioborus pictus pictus**
SB Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens auricollis**

Family Emberizidae, Subfamily Thraupinae (Tanagers)
V Hepatic Tanager Piranga flava hepatica**
MWO Summer Tanager Piranga rubra rubra**
V Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea
M, SB Western Tanager Piranga ludoviciana**

Family Emberizidae, Subfamily Cardinalinae
(Cardinals, Grosbeaks, and New World Buntings)
V Dickcissel Spiza americana**
M Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus**
SB Black-headed Grosbeak Pheucticus melanocephalus maculatus**
V Pyrrhuloxia Cardinalis sinuatus fulvescens
SB Blue Grosbeak Passerina (Guiraca) caerulea salicaria**
SB Lazuli Bunting Passerina amoena**
MO Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea**
V Painted Bunting Passerina ciris pallidior**

Family Emberizidae, Subfamily Icterinae (New World Orioles and Blackbirds)
WV Streak-backed Oriole Icterus pustulatus microstictus**
SB Hooded Oriole Icterus cucullatus nelsoni**
M Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula**
SB Bullock's Oriole Icterus bullockii parvus**
V Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius**
BR Scott's Oriole Icterus parisorum**
MO Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus**
BR Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus neutralis**
BR Tricolored Blackbird Agelaius tricolor**
BR Western Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta**
BR Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus ssp.
V Common Grackle Quiscalus quiscula versicolor*
WV Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus carolinus**
BR Brewer's Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus**
VO Bronzed Cowbird Molothrus aeneus**
  Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater
BR Dwarf Cowbird M. a. obscurus**
M Nevada Cowbird M. a. artemisiae**
V Eastern Cowbird M. a. ater**
V Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus**