Shackleton's Legendary Antarctic Expedition
Sir Ernest Shackleton announces the "Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition."
The Endurance arrives at Millwall Dock, London.
Sir James Caird gives Shackleton £24,000 towards the cost of the expedition.
World War I breaks out. Shackleton offers the services of the Endurance and his crew to the Admiralty. The First Lord Winston Churchill gives word that he should proceed.
The Endurance sails from Plymouth, England for South America.
Freshly painted and well stocked, the Endurance sets sail from Buenos Aires, Argentina, to South Georgia Island.
The Endurance sails from South Georgia through Weddell Sea bound for Vahsel Bay, Antarctica.
The ship enters pack ice but continues to proceed toward the continent.
One day's sail from the continent, the Endurance becomes trapped in pack ice.
Ice floes carry the beset Endurance to the 77th parallel (the farthest south the expedition will travel).
April - October
Bouts of shifting ice pressure shake and throw the Endurance, sometimes causing it to roll to its side.
Heavy activity on the pressure ridges on the ice floes wrench and twist the ship's sternpost, causing dangerous leaks.
Shackleton orders the crew to abandon ship and they establish "Ocean Camp."
(7th or 8th) Frank Hurley returns to the wrecked Endurance and retrieves his negatives from four feet of icy, slushy water.
The Endurance sinks.
The crew hauls the three lifeboats (James Caird, Dudley Docker, and Stancomb Wills) westward over the ice, but are able to go only a short distance.
Shackleton and crew abandon "Ocean Camp" and establish "Patience Camp."
"Patience Camp" drifts north of the Antarctic Circle.
A lead opens in the ice and the crew journeys to Elephant Island in the three open lifeboats.
The group lands on Elephant Island, the first dry land they have touched in 16 months.
The crew prepares the James Caird for the voyage to South Georgia Island, and sets up camp for the 22 men staying behind.
April 24-May 10
Shackleton, Worsley, Crean, McNish, McCarthy, and Vincent set sail in the James Caird for South Georgia Island, 800 miles away.
The six men land safely at Cape Rosa, South Georgia Island.
Shackleton and his band set camp and plan their route over mountains to the whaling stations on the other side of the island.
Shackleton, Worsley, and Crean cross snowfields, glaciers, and mountains, covering 22 miles in 36 hours.
The three arrive in Stromness Station. Worsley leads a rescue party for the men left in King Haakon Bay. Shackleton makes plans to rescue the crew on Elephant Island.
Dense pack ice thwarts Shackleton's first rescue attempt.
Shackleton's second rescue attempt aboard Uruguayan trawler Instituto de Pesca No. 1 fails to penetrate the ice.
Shackleton's third rescue attempt - aboard schooner Emma - fails.
With help from the Chilean government, Shackleton sets sail on trawler Yelcho for his fourth attempt.
The Yelcho penetrates the pack ice and rescues the 22 crewmembers left on Elephant Island, hoping for their leader's return.
Shackleton and crew arrive at Punta Arenas, Chile. All 28 men had survived the twenty-two-month odyssey.
The First World War ends. Over thirty men from Shackleton's two Antarctic expeditions fought in the war.
Shackleton dies of a heart attack in Grytviken, South Georgia, while on his fourth expedition to the Antarctic.